As the main feed for ruminants, forages need to meet the nutrient requirements, both in quality and quantity. However, due to the difference in conditions between the dry and wet seasons, it is difficult to provide high-quality forage in sufficient quantities throughout the year in tropical regions such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Timor Leste, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the availability and nutrient contents of forages and other natural resources during dry and wet seasons in order to improve the productivity of dairy cows raised by smallholder farmers, especially in Yogyakarta.